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About Us

Origin

Inspired by the Sanskrit word “Atmaja”, literally meaning soul’s creation, “HIS Eyeness Ophthalmics” is a dream that emerged from the core of the soul. Born in August of 2017, the organization’s original drive and undying passion is to help society and mankind become the recipients of revolutionary and innovative ophthalmic solutions.

Values & Vision

With a core emphasis on being patient-centric, we derive our purpose from the lives of our patients. At the heart of our endeavor is the spirit of eternal service. Our vision is to strengthen the quality of formulations for every ophthalmologist, driven by our underlying passion for reaching larger sections of society by providing solutions currently in need.

Inspired by the call in 2014 to “Make in India” – we, a group of professionals, working with a leading pharma MNC, have been mulling over the opportunity and scope of contributing in the field of Pharmaceuticals.

We finally decided to realise our dreams and vision and incorporated HIS Eyeness Ophthalmics Private Limited at Bangalore.

Our Focus

Philosophy

Our story centers around a specific and powerful philosophy, the “philosophy of Eyeness”. Eyeness is a state best described as the most beautiful, natural, and ideal state a pair of eyes can be in. It’s the healthiest condition in which the human optical faculty can possibly function. Our sole vision is to help achieve Eyeness of patients and societies at large with our innovative ophthalmic solutions, approved and certified by the medical community.

Meaning & Mission

HIS Eyeness is a mélange of the words -Eyeness that represents our philosophy and ‘HIS’, derived from the letters of the words ISH, meaning “In the Services of Healthcare Practitioners''. With a destiny to focus our commitment towards the ophthalmic fraternity and be the preferred comprehensive solutions and service provider, our sole mission is to be the most preferred partner of every Ophthalmologist. Our intent is to provide qualitative and innovative formulations to help protect, preserve and restore vision in patients through predictable outcomes and improved compliance.

Our focus is to

  • Foster innovation through novel presentations and intuitive offerings by scientifically transforming anecdotal findings into clinical utilisation
  • Develop skills in execution and operations in taking the innovative solutions to the last citizen in the farthest society
  • To harness on the ever-shining Indian intellectual ability to contribute to the mankind and build in best-in-class manufacturing facility to serve the world

MEET OUR TEAM

Our team is a clan of competent professionals who are well-informed about Ophthalmology and exhibit great knowledge about Ophthalmology.
team flowchart

Founder & Director

K V Suryanarayanan

Qualified and Certified professional in Management, with experience of over 30 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management.

Inspired by the call in 2014 to “Make in India” – we, a group of professionals, working with a leading pharma MNC, have been mulling over the opportunity and scope of contributing in the field of Pharmaceuticals.

We finally decided to realise our dreams and vision and incorporated HIS Eyeness Ophthalmics Private Limited at Bangalore.

Our focus is to
  • Foster innovation through novel presentations and intuitive offerings by scientifically transforming anecdotal findings into clinical utilisation
  • Develop skills in execution and operations in taking the innovative solutions to the last citizen in the farthest society
  • To harness on the ever-shining Indian intellectual ability to contribute to the mankind and build in best-in-class manufacturing facility to serve the world
BisiReddy

Torchbearers & Directors

BisiReddy

S Bisi Reddy

Qualified and Certified professional in Management, with experience of over 20 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are precisive Business Planning and Forecasting, SMART Sales & Performance Management, Building Brands with effective field execution.

Mohammad M Parvez

Qualified and Certified professional in Management, with experience of 20 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are passionate execution, effective communication well organised and planned. His creativity supports him in building innovative strategies for effective brand building.

Parvez
Naresh

Naresh K Rautela

Qualified and Certified professional in Management, with experience of over 20 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are building well-bonded team, consolidating supports and influence from across, developing behaviour based KOL relationship, building versatile and innovative product portfolio.

Our Sculptors

Team with common strength as passionate execution, living the dream of building “HIS Eyeness Ophthalmics” as the preferred solution provider with every HCPs
Channaiah Belludi Mathad

Channaiah BM

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of over a decade in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are being keen to learn new functions, generating business leads, creative in designing inputs – a few to mention

Sivakumar CS

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of close to two decades in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are being an effective coordinator and excellent team player. His adapting and multi lingual skills support his team management skills

Shiva
ManoharChappalgavi

Manohar Chappalgavi

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of over a decade in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are excellent customer relationships, displaying business acumen to improvise productivity, restless towards results - a few to mention

T Shivakumar

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of 22 years in Pharmaceutical Sales Analytics and Support functions. With experience and focus in administration, he is skilled with keen observation and delivers result, displaying perfection and innovation. Effectively coordinates and organises meetings and team needs in Operations – a few to mention

Shiva
Yogesh Singh

Yogesh Singh

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of more than a decade in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are passionate and energetic execution and customer relationship built with his behaviour. Persuasive communication and persistence in approach are his strengths – to mention a few

Kaustubh K Sambrey

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of over a decade in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are effective implementation of strategies, displaying business acumen to improvise productivity - a few to mention

Kaustubh K Sambrey
BhavinTrivedi

Bhavin Trivedi

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of 12 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, he is skilful in delivering results, displaying business acumen to improvise productivity loyal to relationships, consolidating supports and influence from across, building effective teams – a few to mention

Sanathan Nair

Experienced and certified professional in Training, with experience of close to two decades in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, he adds value with his coaching and training skills. His expertise is in articulating scientific brand communication - a few to mention

Sanathan Nair
FaisalShaikh

Faisal Shaikh

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of 15 years in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are scientific bent in creating and designing inputs, providing scientific solutions to issues faced, willing to train and coach the team - a few to mention

Senthil D

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of close to two decades in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are passionate execution and customer relationship built with his behaviour. Persuasive communication and persistence in approach are his strengths – to mention a few

Senthil D
Raman

Raman Arora

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of close to two decades in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are managing chain distribution and channel partners, excellent customer relationships, displaying business acumen in expanding coverage - a few to mention

Ramesh Rao

Experienced and certified professional in Supply Chain and Logistics Management with leading Indian & Multinational organizations covering Pharmaceuticals, Health care, Medical Device sectors, C&F, and CSA services. Skilled in Inventory Planning, Procurement, Trade Compliance, International and Domestic Logistics, Distribution, Pricing & Implementation, MIS Implementation and Maintenance of SCM modules in ERP.

RameshRao
Veena Chandrashekar

Veena Chandrashekar

A qualified and a meritorious Chartered Accountant by profession. She has been in the field with various industries for over 2 decades and brings in a collective value to the company by handling every aspect of finance. Skilled in Finance and Accounts spectrum across Industries and Companies and has helped establishing compliant system, processes and practices.

Aftab Siddiqui

Experienced and certified professional in Management, with experience of close to two decades in Pharmaceutical Sales and Management. With experience and focus in the speciality of Ophthalmics, his strengths are passionate execution and customer relationship built with his behaviour. Persuasive communication and persistence in approach are his strengths – to mention a few

Aftab Siddiqui

Your search for employment with entrepreneurial experience

The "drive" being the underlying passion and the "direction" being to reach the larger society, we have precisely interlaced our principles, policies and operational processes to ensure and encourage, execution of solutions - speedier than the need.

Be part of an organization whose passion for helping humanity with advanced medical technology isn't just a philosophy. With a vision to reach out to society, we welcome the best minds to join us.

If you're a driven individual who believes in executing your core strengths for the greater good, help us turn utopia into reality.

Contact Us

Address

72/2, 2nd Floor,
Yashoda Thamraparni Building,
HAL Airport Road, Domlur,
Bangalore – 560 071

Anatomy

Visual System

All of the richness of the visual world comes to us through the eye. Its marvellously complex neural circuitry and finely regulated biochemistry maintain a flow of information over extraordinarily wide ranges of illumination.

Layers of the Eye

Fibrous Layers : Cornea, Conjunctiva, Sclera
Vascular Layers: Iris, Ciliary Body, Choroid
Nervous Layers : Retina

Refraction

If the eyeball is elongated from front to rear, the lens does not need to be very curved to allow focusing of near objects, because the light rays will be able to travel further before they must converge on the retina.

Lacrimal System

Collectively, the anatomic structures responsible for the production, distribution, and drainage of tears are known as the lacrimal system. Functionally, the lacrimal system is divided into three parts

Diseases

Types of Diseases

Allergic conjunctivitis

This condition is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (mucous membrane coating the white of the eye and the internal surface of the eyelids), caused by excessive sensitivity to foreign substances.

Amblyopia

What is amblyopia?

Amblyopia (also called as lazy eye) is a type of poor vision that happens in one of the eyes. It develops when there’s a breakdown in the co-ordination between the brain and the eye and the brain can’t recognize the sight from one of the eyes. Over time, the brain relies more and more on the other, stronger eye — while vision in the weaker eye gets worse.

Cataract

CATARACT is when the natural lens in our eyes, contained between the iris and the vitreous body, becomes opaque. This is due to changes in the chemical composition of the lens like oxidation of lens proteins, which reduces its transparency. There are many reasons, though predominantly it is aging.

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR)

CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY (CSCR) is an eye disorder directly associated with stress. It mostly affects people who have a hyperactive personality, or who are very competitive or exposed to prolonged stress. Particularly introverted individuals, who have personality disorders and tend to isolate themselves from social relationships, also seem to be susceptible to CSCR.

Corneal Ulcer

A corneal ulcer is an open sore on the Cornea, the thin clear layer over the iris.

Diabetic retinopathy

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT ?

It is the most important ocular complication of diabetes. It often manifests itself with impaired vision and discontinuity areas in the visual field, causing a “patchy vision” with loss of sharpness and sensitivity to light.

Dry age-related macular degeneration

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT ?

MACULAR DEGENERATION refers to a retinal disorder which causes an alteration, reducing the functionality of the central area of the retina (the macula) leading to loss of central vision. It is most commonly associated with ageing of the eye: the macula, containing numerous light receptors, changes until it loses its characteristics.

Dry Eye Syndrome or Tear Film Dysfunction

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT ?

DRY EYE is a disorder of the ocular surface, caused by multiple factors, featuring a loss of homeostasis of the tear film. It is accompanied by ocular symptoms, where instability and hyperosmolarity of the tear film, inflammation and lesions of the ocular surface and neurosensory anomalies, play an important role in the aetiology of the disorder.

Asthenopia or Digital Eyestrain (Digital Eye Strain)

WHAT IT IS ABOUT AND HOW TO RECOGNIZE IT ?

Extensive & prolonged use of electronic devices emitting blue light like computer, smartphone and tablet, creates fatigue of Ocular Surface. Usually during the use of these devices, the attention and concentration is high, leading to lesser blinking, decreased lacrimation and lubrication, hence increased discomforts, redness and pain.

Floaters

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT ?

FLOATERS manifest themselves as darker areas that move when the eyes move. These could arise/occur at any age and accompany us throughout life

Glaucoma

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT ?

GLAUCOMA is an eye disease generally related to the intra ocular pressure being too high. It is the second cause of blindness worldwide after cataract, but it is the leading irreversible condition.

Juvenile Myopia

JUVENILE MYOPIA is a sight defect which causes the far-field vision to be blurred, while near-field sight can be good.

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common condition, yet many people don't realize they have it. MGD happens when there's a problem with a few dozen tiny glands in the eyelids that help make the oil/lipid layer of the tears.

Ocular Nutrients

Our eyes are a complex organ providing the most useful of our senses. When the eyes are tuned properly to the world around them, and of good health and function, they provide color vision, depth perception, motion detection, vision in both near-dark and bright environments, stereovision, and detailed visual acuity –and they accomplish these things nearly instantaneously.

PINK EYE (Conjunctivitis)

Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they're more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink.

Post-surgical Retinal Oedema

WHAT IS IT AND HOW IS IT TREATED ?

MACULAR EDEMA is a complication of certain diseases of the retina such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinal Vascular Occlusions, or in some cases could also be the undesirable secondary effect.

Pterygium

Pterygium is a growth of the conjunctiva or mucous membrane that covers the eye over the cornea. The cornea is the clear front covering of the eye. This benign growth is often shaped like a wedge. Pterygium usually does not cause problem or require treatment, but it can be removed if it interferes with the vision.

Refractive Surgery

REFRACTIVE EYE SURGERY refers to all techniques for correcting refractive errors through modifications on the cornea or lens. These errors are primarily myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and also include presbyopia.

Uveitis

Uveitis is the inflammation of uvea, the middle vascular tunic of the eye, rich in blood vessels and deputy to the nutrition of most of the ocular structures. An inflammatory process in the uvea can determine some damages on the cornea, the retina, the sclera and other ocular tissues.

Allergic conjunctivitis

WHAT IS IT AND HOW IS IT TREATED

This condition is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (mucous membrane coating the white of the eye and the internal surface of the eyelids), caused by excessive sensitivity to foreign substances. Allergic Conjunctivitis is not a seasonal problem, as is commonly believed, but it is the reaction to pollen, dust mites, domestic animal fur, soft particles and smog. The common symptoms are red eyes, incessant itching, excessive tearing, photophobia – a few to mention. Itching is the most common and significant symptom. It can last from a few seconds to some hours or in severe cases even for several days. It is also associated with swelling of the eyelids, red & burning eyes. According to a scientific study, Ocular allergies affect between 6% to 30% of the population. Conjunctival allergy can be acute or chronic and in 30% to 70% of cases, it is also associated with allergic rhinitis. This condition is diagnosed by the ophthalmologist. It can be treated with varying results. Treatment generally involves removal of the allergen responsible, by avoiding unnecessary exposure to allergens and by topical anti-allergic eyedrops along with concomitant and supportive therapies.

AMBLYOPIA

What is amblyopia?

Amblyopia (also called as lazy eye) is a type of poor vision that happens in one of the eyes. It develops when there’s a breakdown in the co-ordination between the brain and the eye and the brain can’t recognize the sight from one of the eyes. Over time, the brain relies more and more on the other, stronger eye — while vision in the weaker eye gets worse. It’s called “lazy eye” because the stronger eye works better. But people with amblyopia are not lazy, and they can’t control the way their eyes work. Amblyopia starts in childhood, and it’s the most common cause of vision loss in kids. Up to 3 out of 100 children have it. The good news is that early treatment works well and usually prevents long-term vision problems.

What are the symptoms of amblyopia?

Symptoms of amblyopia can be hard to notice. Kids with amblyopia may have poor depth perception — they have trouble telling how near or far something is. Parents may also notice signs that their child is struggling to see clearly, like:

  • Squinting
  • Shutting 1 eye
  • Tilting their head

In many cases, parents don’t know their child has amblyopia until a doctor diagnoses it during an eye exam. That’s why it’s important for all kids to get a vision screening at least once between 3 years to 5 years.

Some kids are born with amblyopia and others develop it later in childhood. The chances of having amblyopia are higher in kids who:

  • Were born early (premature)
  • Were smaller than average at birth
  • Have a family history of amblyopia, childhood cataracts, or other eye conditions
  • Have developmental disabilities

In many cases, the cause of amblyopia is unknown. But sometimes, a different vision problem can lead to amblyopia. Normally, the brain uses nerve signals from both eyes to see. But if an eye condition makes vision in one of the eye worse, the brain may try to work around it. It starts to “turn off” signals from the weaker eye and rely only on the stronger eye.

Some eye conditions that can lead to amblyopia are:

  • Refractive errors - These include common vision problems like near-sightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Normally, these problems are easy to fix with glasses or contacts. But if they’re not treated, the brain may start to rely more on the eye with stronger vision.
  • Strabismus - Usually, the eyes move together as a pair. But in kids with strabismus, the eyes don’t line up. One eye might drift in, out, up, or down.
  • Cataract - This causes cloudiness in the lens of the eye, making things look blurry. While most cataracts happen in older people, babies and children can also develop cataracts.

It’s important to start treating children with amblyopia early — the sooner the better. Kids who grow up without treatment may have lifelong vision problems. Amblyopia treatment is usually less effective in adults than in children.

Cataract

CATARACT is when the natural lens in our eyes, contained between the iris and the vitreous body, becomes opaque. This is due to changes in the chemical composition of the lens like oxidation of lens proteins, which reduces its transparency. There are many reasons, though predominantly it is aging. The cataract is diagnosed using specific instruments. It is usual to undergo a full regular ophthalmology visit for diagnosis. The only treatment is removal of lens through surgical procedures. Today in advanced countries, it generally involves the technique known as phacoemulsification, which fragments the lens using ultrasound. The fragments are then removed. A small artificial lens is then implanted. The procedure takes place under local or topical anaesthesia. A femtosecond laser can also be used to perform even more precise incisions in the cornea to fragment the lens with less trauma (using less ultrasound), and also cut the capsule that contains it more accurately. Thanks to constant technological progress it is now possible to use intraocular lenses (IOL) that differ in terms of shape, material and size, at different dioptres, to allow maximum adaptability for correcting a greater variety of sight defects and eye structures. The choice of the most suitable IOL to implant is important for the success of the cataract procedure. Therefore the specialist, following a thorough consultation and preoperative examinations, will decide whether the patient is a good candidate for the intervention and the best IOL for an optimal result.

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR)

CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY (CSCR) is an eye disorder directly associated with stress. It mostly affects people who have a hyperactive personality, or who are very competitive or exposed to prolonged stress. Particularly introverted individuals, who have personality disorders and tend to isolate themselves from social relationships, also seem to be susceptible to CSCR. Some risk factors: emotional and physical stress, high levels of blood cortisol. The people most affected are male and aged between 25 and 55 years. When you find it in women it is usually the result of cortisol-based therapies or conditions that increase blood cortisol. Central serous chorioretinopathy is usually not a serious disease that can cause great concern for those who suffer from it. It is characterised by the presence of foci of inflammation on the surface of the retina. In CSCR a collection of fluid appears below the central portion of the retina (macula) without there being associated chorioretinal diseases. The symptoms involve blurred vision, presence of central dots, distorted images. The condition can disappear spontaneously in 2-4 months with complete recovery of sight. It can however relapse and become chronic.

Corneal Ulcer

A corneal ulcer is an open sore on the Cornea, the thin clear layer over the iris.

Corneal Ulcer Symptoms

  • Redness
  • Severe pain
  • Tearing
  • Pus or thick discharge from eye
  • Blurring
  • Pain when looking at bright lights
  • Swollen eyelids
  • A round white spot on the cornea
  • Vision changes
  • Severe pain
  • Discharge from the eye

It’s especially important to watch for problems if you’ve scratched your cornea before or if you’ve been around chemicals or small particles like sand, metal, or glass.

Causes of Corneal Ulcer

Infections cause most corneal ulcers.

  • Bacterial Infections
  • Viral infections
  • Fungal infections
  • Parasitic infections

Corneal Ulcer Risk Factors

People who wear Contact lenses are more likely to get corneal ulcers. This risk is 10 times higher if extended-wear (overnight) soft contacts are used. Bacteria on the lens or in the cleaning solution could get trapped under the lens. Wearing lenses for long periods can also block oxygen to the cornea, raising the chances of infection. Scratches on the edge of the contact lens, might scrape your cornea and leave it more open to bacterial infections. Tiny particles of dirt trapped under the contact could also scratch the Cornea.

Other things that may lead to a corneal ulcer include:

  • Steroid eye drops
  • Disorders that cause dry eyes
  • Eyelid inflammation (blepharitis)
  • Eyelashes that grow inward
  • Eyelids that turn inward
  • Conditions that affect the eyelid and keep it from closing all the way, like Bell’s palsy
  • Chemical burns or other cornea injuries

Corneal Ulcer Treatment

Medications

Depending on the cause of the ulcer, it could probably be antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal eye drops.

Diabetic retinopathy

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT

It is the most important ocular complication of diabetes. It often manifests itself with impaired vision and discontinuity areas in the visual field, causing a “patchy vision” with loss of sharpness and sensitivity to light. The main risk factors associated with the earlier appearance and faster evolution of DIABETIC RETINOPATHY are: the duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and any concomitant high blood pressure. In the eye, this leads to a inadequate intake of oxygen in some areas of the retina, which consequently tend to become ischaemic. Before this degeneration process happens, new vessels proliferate in an uncontrolled way, damaging the retinal tissue.

Diabetic retinopathy can be separated into two forms, based on the presence of newly formed vessels or otherwise:

The proliferative more serious, form features intense vascular proliferation, with fragile vessels that tend to fracture, causing retinal damage;

The non-proliferative form, characterised by microaneurysms (dilations of the vessels), which affect the small retinal vessels and the larger ones, sometimes involves accumulation of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, which in turn tend to deteriorate the sight.

Dry age-related macular degeneration

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT

MACULAR DEGENERATION refers to a retinal disorder which causes an alteration, reducing the functionality of the central area of the retina (the macula) leading to loss of central vision. It is most commonly associated with ageing of the eye: the macula, containing numerous light receptors, changes until it loses its characteristics. The incidence of AMD is rare before the age of 55 years, but increases, especially after 75 years. The more severe form of the disease, known as “wet”, is less frequent and develops faster but is currently the only one considered treatable. Initial symptoms are distorted images in the central area of the visual field, difficulty reading and carrying out close-up activities, which require looking at small details, loss of colour brilliance. There are two forms of age-related macular degeneration, both are associated with alterations of the capillary microcirculation, which is typical of advanced age: the dry (or atrophic) form and the wet (or exudative) form. These should be considered as two separate disorders, as their prognosis and potential therapies are entirely different. The dry or atrophic form (85%-90% of cases) is characterised by a progressive thinning of the central retina, through being poorly nourished by the capillaries, which consequently atrophies.

Dry Eye Syndrome or Tear Film Dysfunction

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT

DRY EYE is a disorder of the ocular surface, caused by multiple factors, featuring a loss of homeostasis of the tear film. It is accompanied by ocular symptoms, where instability and hyperosmolarity of the tear film, inflammation and lesions of the ocular surface and neurosensory anomalies, play an important role in the aetiology of the disorder. The symptoms are burning, pricking pain, itching, feeling of an external body, dryness, tiredness of the eyes and eyelids, photophobia, blurred vision.

The following anatomical and physiological factors help to maintain the surface of the eye unaffected:

  • normal quantity of tear fluid
  • normal composition of tear fluid
  • regular blinking to evenly distribute tear fluid

Tears are therefore very important for keeping the eye healthy. As well as having an antibacterial role, they lubricate the eye surface and protect it from any foreign bodies. Other factors such as atmospheric and environmental pollution, lifestyle (computer screens), the presence of allergens (potentially irritating substances) and extended use of contact lenses, can reduce the production of tears.

Asthenopia or Digital Eyestrain (Digital Eye Strain)

WHAT IT IS ABOUT AND HOW TO RECOGNIZE IT

Extensive & prolonged use of electronic devices emitting blue light like computer, smartphone and tablet, creates fatigue of Ocular Surface. Usually during the use of these devices, the attention and concentration is high, leading to lesser blinking, decreased lacrimation and lubrication, hence increased discomforts, redness and pain. This is a temporary condition and a little rest with frequent GOOD BLINKINGR is enough to overcome the fatigue. If the stress persists, it could lead to chronic soreness creating lack of concentration and disorientation from routines. Urbanised living conditions, adverse environmental conditions and refractive defects, also cause an excessive fatigue of ocular muscles and retina.

Common Corrective Measures

  • Wearing glasses to correct refraction and goggles to protect from blue light emitting gadgets
  • When working with digital gadgets like Computer, Laptops, TVs and Phones - taking regular breaks, looking objects at longer distance
  • Improving lighting in the room when using electronic devices, to avoid troublesome reflections
  • Observing ideal and suitable sitting posture, as it helps in reducing asthenopia.
  • On consultation with your Ophthalmologist, instilling Ocular lubricants can help moistening the ocular surface continually and help remove ocular fatigue.

GOOD BLINKR is all what you need to prevent Eye Strain.

Step-By-Step Blinking Exercises for Eye Comfort

Incorporating blinking exercises into your daily routine is a great way to relax your eyes and keep them comfortable. When doing your blinking exercises say the steps to yourself. This will help you avoid forgetting steps or rushing through the exercise.

Close-Pause-Pause-Open-Relax

Step 1 : Close your eyes gently, without squeezing.

Step 2 : Pause and keep your eyes closed for a count of 2.

Step 3 : Gently open your eyes and relax them.

Step 4 : Repeat 5 times

Close-Pause-Pause-Squeeze-Open-Relax

Step 1: Close your eyes gently, without squeezing.

Step 2: Pause and keep your eyes closed for a count of 2.

Step 3: Keep your eyes closed and squeeze your eyelids together slowly and gently.

Step 4: Gently open your eyes and relax them.

Step 5: Repeat 5 times.

Importance of GOOD BLINKINGR

Blinking exercises are a great way to keep your eyes moist and combat the symptoms of Digital Eye Strain. Blinking stimulates tear production and gives our eyes a chance to clear away any debris, that has accumulated on the surface of the eye. Individuals who spend a lot of time on the computer or doing focussed work tend to blink lesser than regular. When we don’t blink often enough, the moisture in our eyes evaporates and is not replenished, leaving our eyes tired, dry and itchy. Blinking exercises are a great way to refresh our eyes and keep them lubricated. They are also easy to do and can be smoothly added to your everyday routine.

Floaters

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT

FLOATERS manifest themselves as darker areas that move when the eyes move. These could arise/occur at any age and accompany us throughout life The floaters occur later degenerating vitreous (the jelly-like substance inside the eye). The vitreous body is made from 99% water and the remaining 1% of collagen fibers, vitreous cells, hyaluronic acid, and proteins that constitute the scaffolding. Hyaluronic acid is the molecule more present and plays a vital role in supporting the collagen fibers and retain water molecules. During the degeneration and aging phenomena, the production capacity of hyaluronic acid within the vitreous is reduced: the collagen fibers are not adequately supported and tend to collapse upon one another, creating accumulations. In this way, the vitreous body loses its transparency for a reduction of the aqueous component. The Floaters could be caused by processes related to aging, also by myopia, injuries, bleeding and/or inflammatory processes (Uveitis, diabetes). In severe cases, the floaters may occur due to a retinal detachment or following surgical procedures. In these cases, you can also see flashes of light (phosphenes) induced by stresses that the detached vitreous body exerts on the retina.

WE RECOMMEND

  • drink a lot of water, hydration is fundamental to maintain the integrity of the vitreous body;
  • maintain healthy eating habit, favouring fruits, vegetables and limiting fats;
  • shield the eyes from the sun, because the UV rays increase the progression of the vitreous body’s degeneration;
  • use quality Ocular nutrient supplements

Glaucoma

WHAT IS IT AND HOW TO RECOGNISE IT

GLAUCOMA is an eye disease generally related to the intra ocular pressure being too high. It is the second cause of blindness worldwide after cataract, but it is the leading irreversible condition. The internal pressure of the eye damages the optic nerve, where all retinal nerve fibres, which send visual information to nerve centres in the brain, converge. The increased pressure irreparably damages the neurons that transport the bioelectric signal. Chronic open-angle glaucoma is the most frequent form of glaucoma (around 80% of cases). It occurs when an obstacle prevents the aqueous humour from flowing. The majority of outflow is via the trabecular meshwork, an organ responsible for active transport of the aqueous humour. It is found above the iris or more precisely, in the angle between the iris and cornea. Recent studies have demonstrated how functionality of the trabecular meshwork is fundamental for the progress of this disease. Glaucoma has been called the “silent thief of sight” because the loss of vision often occurs gradually over a long period of time. The symptoms occur only when the disease is quite advanced. The loss of vision is irreversible. Topical therapy is typically first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed glaucoma. When the condition is detected early enough, it is possible to arrest the development or slow the progression. Treatment of glaucoma is usually effective only when the patient is aware of the disease and compliant to the medication. All multidose ophthalmic medications are required to have a preservative to maintain an antimicrobial environment in the bottle, but unfortunately, most preservatives in ophthalmic medications disrupt the ocular surface and even exacerbate any pre-existing ocular surface disease (OSD). Preservative free glaucoma medications have found that patients experience more comfort and are better compliant. Eyes treated with preservative free medications also appear to have healthier ocular surfaces as determined by the doctors.

Juvenile Myopia

JUVENILE MYOPIA is a sight defect which causes the far-field vision to be blurred, while near-field sight can be good. In the normal (emmetropic) eye, the light rays from distant objects are focused exactly on the retina. However, in the myopic eye these same rays fall before the retina and then diverge: a blurred image therefore forms on the retinal surface. Myopia appears at school age, increases over the age and tends to stabilise around 20-25 years. It has both genetic causes (if one or both parents are myopic it is more likely that the children will also be) and causes related to lifestyle. Over recent years, a closer correlation between myopia and lifestyle has also been discovered. In fact, children who spend too much time in closed environments, looking at screens from close by (using computers, tablets and smartphones) have a higher risk of developing it and have a faster progression.

It is recommended for

  • Activities in natural light or in the open air
  • Minimize exposure to TV or video games
  • Proper seating position
  • Observe the optimum distance for reading or writing (35-40 cm)
  • Ensure to feed them a balanced and healthy diet

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common condition, yet many people don't realize they have it. MGD happens when there's a problem with a few dozen tiny glands in the eyelids that help make the oil/lipid layer of the tears.

What Happens?

These meibomian glands make an oil called meibum. Meibum, Water, and Mucous form the three layers of tear film, the fluid that keeps the eyes moist. The oil helps prevent the water layer on the Ocular surface from evaporating or drying out too quickly. Changes to the amount or quality of the oil, or to the glands themselves, can lead to MGD. It's often the result of a combination of things. The most common type, obstructive MGD, happens when the gland openings get clogged, and less and less oil reaches the Ocular surface.

Common medical issues linked to MGD are:

  • Increased levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides
  • Allergic Conjunctivitis and other eye diseases
  • Inflamed or damaged Eyelid or Cornea
  • Ocular Infections
  • Auto immune diseases
  • Some Systemic Medications

Symptoms

In its early stage, might not have any symptoms.

But as MGD progresses, less oil or poor-quality oil in the tear film, leads to burning, itchy, irritating or dry feel. It might also feel like the presence of a grain or sand or dust in the eye. An irritated, inflamed eyelid may be red.

Occasional blurring of vision happens, which could also minimise with GOOD BLINKR.

Medical Treatment Options

  • Lubricants
  • Antibiotics for infections
  • Cyclosporine to modulate the immune system
  • Anti-inflammatories that help ease inflammation
  • Hot Fomentation – both conventional or through scientific eye masks.
  • Sterile Wipes with Virgin Coconut oil, Vitamin E, Castor Oil and Coca betaine surfactants will be helpful to maintain the hygiene of eye lids.
  • Devices that send heat or pulsed light to open blocked meibomian glands and improve relief from symptoms.

Ocular Nutrients

Our eyes are a complex organ providing the most useful of our senses. When the eyes are tuned properly to the world around them, and of good health and function, they provide color vision, depth perception, motion detection, vision in both near-dark and bright environments, stereovision, and detailed visual acuity –and they accomplish these things nearly instantaneously. Surely an organ so finely tuned, and so important must have a unique fuel and nutritional requirements to function best. There are a diverse number of nutrients that are required for healthy eyes and good vision. Nutritional requirements can vary through the lifespan. Most adults eating a balanced diet can obtain all their necessary nutrients through the food they eat without supplementation or use of a multivitamin. If a patient’s diet is not as complete as it should be, a multivitamin can be a good option to provide the patient with a nearly complete allotment of vitamins and minerals.

Deficiencies in particular vitamins can increase the risk of some eye conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Research suggests that some vitamin and mineral supplements may help protect against or slow the development of these conditions.

What Science of Ocular Nutrients has to say?

Plenty of claims are made about the positive effects of supplements on vision and eye health, but very few research studies support these claims. One exception is the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS and AREDS2). These are large studies conducted by the National Eye Institute. Results from AREDS 2 took what was learned from AREDS and improved the supplement recommendations. The studies focused on two conditions that affect millions of Americans, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

AMD is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States. It affects more than 10 million people. It’s mainly associated with aging, but some forms of macular degeneration affect younger people as well.

AMD occurs when there’s deterioration of light-sensitive cells in the macula area of the retina. This is the part of the eye responsible for:

  • recording what we see and sending the information to our brains
  • seeing fine detail
  • focusing

Recommended supplements

AREDS and AREDS2 looked at the effects of high doses of several antioxidants taken together for several years. The final recommendations from AREDS2 were:

  • vitamin C - 500 mg
  • vitamin E - 400 IU
  • lutein - 10 mg
  • zeaxanthin - 2 mg
  • zinc - 80 mg
  • copper - 2 mg (taken to prevent copper deficiency caused by zinc)

This supplement formulation is available in Tablet form and is usually taken twice daily. (Tab VCOLUX)

PINK EYE (Conjunctivitis)

Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they're more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink. Pink eye is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, or in babies, due to an incompletely opened tear duct. Though pink eye can be irritating, it rarely affects the vision. Because pink eye can be contagious, early diagnosis and treatment can help limit its spread and get cured earlier.

The most common pink eye symptoms include:

  • Redness in one or both the eyes
  • Itchiness in one or both the eyes
  • Gritty feeling in one or both the eyes
  • Discharge in one or both the eyes that forms a crust during the night that may prevent the eyes from opening in the morning
  • Tearing

Causes of pink eye include:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Allergies
  • A chemical splash in the eye
  • A foreign object in the eye
  • In new-borns, a blocked tear duct

Viral and bacterial conjunctivitis

Most cases of pink eye are typically caused by adenovirus but can also be caused by herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and various other viruses, including the COVID-19. Both viral and bacterial conjunctivitis can occur along with colds or symptoms of a respiratory infection, such as a sore throat. Wearing contact lenses that aren't cleaned properly also can cause bacterial conjunctivitis. Both types are very contagious. They are spread through direct or indirect contact with the liquid that drains from the eye of someone who's infected. One or both eyes may be affected.

Allergic conjunctivitis

Allergic conjunctivitis affects both eyes and is a response to an allergy-causing substance such as pollen. In response to allergens, the body produces an antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE). This antibody triggers special cells called mast cells in the mucous lining of the eyes and airways to release inflammatory substances, including histamines. This release of histamine and other inflammatory substances can produce a number of allergy signs and symptoms, including red or pink eyes. With allergic conjunctivitis, the experience varies from intense itching, tearing and inflammation of the eyes — as well as sneezing and watery nasal discharge. Most allergic conjunctivitis can be controlled with anti-allergic treatment.

Conjunctivitis resulting from irritation

Irritation from a chemical splash or foreign object in the eye is also associated with conjunctivitis. Sometimes flushing and cleaning the eye to rid it of the chemical or object causes redness and irritation. Signs and symptoms, which may include watery eyes and a mucous discharge, usually clear up on their own within about a day. If initial flushing doesn't resolve the symptoms, or if the chemical is a caustic one such as lye, consulting an ophthalmologist as soon as possible, is very important. A chemical splash into the eye can cause permanent eye damage. Persistent symptoms could also indicate that the eyes still have the foreign body — or possibly something even severe.

Practice good hygiene to control the spread of Pink Eye.

  • Don't touch the eyes with unclean hands
  • Wash your hands before touching the eye
  • Always clean the eyes with sterile wet wipes
  • Use a clean towel and wash it daily
  • Do not share towels or washcloths
  • Change the pillowcases regularly
  • Be cautious with any eye cosmetics, such as mascara
  • Do not share eye cosmetics or personal eye care items

Post-surgical Retinal Oedema

WHAT IS IT AND HOW IS IT TREATED

MACULAR EDEMA is a complication of certain diseases of the retina such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinal Vascular Occlusions, or in some cases could also be the undesirable secondary effect. One cause of inflammation is Cystoid Macular Oedema (PCME, Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Oedema). The pathogenesis of cystoid macular Oedema, even if not completely known, seems to be related to alteration in the blood-retinal barrier as a consequence of the release of inflammation mediators. Macular Oedema is found especially in diabetic people, where it occurs following surgery than in non-diabetic patients.

Pterygium

Pterygium is a growth of the conjunctiva or mucous membrane that covers the eye over the cornea. The cornea is the clear front covering of the eye. This benign growth is often shaped like a wedge. Pterygium usually does not cause problem or require treatment, but it can be removed if it interferes with the vision.

What causes Pterygium

The exact cause of pterygium is not known. One explanation is that too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light can lead to these growths. It occurs more often in people who live in warm climates and spend a lot of time outdoors in sunny or windy environments. People whose eyes are exposed to certain elements on a regular basis have a higher risk of developing this condition. These elements include:

  • pollen
  • sand
  • smoke
  • wind

Symptoms

Pterygium does not always cause symptoms. When it does, the symptoms are usually mild. Common symptoms include redness, blurred vision and eye irritation. It might also create burning sensation or itchiness. If Pterygium grows large enough to cover the Cornea, it can interfere with the vision. Thick or larger Pterygium can also cause to feel like having a foreign object in the eye. Wearing contact lenses could become a discomfort on a Pterygium eye. Pterygium can lead to severe scarring on the cornea, but this is rare. Scarring on the cornea needs to be treated because it can cause vision loss. For minor cases, treatment usually involves eye drops or ointment to treat inflammation. In more serious cases, treatment can involve surgical removal of the pterygium.

Diagnostics Method

Diagnosing a pterygium is based on a physical examination using a slit lamp. Additional tests, if need be, may include:

  • Visual acuity test
  • Corneal topography
  • Photo documentation

Treatment – Medications and Surgery

A pterygium usually doesn’t require any treatment unless it is blocking the vision or causing severe discomfort. Your eye doctor might want to check your eyes occasionally to see if the growth is causing vision problems. If the Pterygium is causing a lot of irritation or redness, then eye drops or eye ointments to reduce inflammation are recommended. Surgery is recommended to remove the Pterygium, if eye drops or ointments does not provide relief. Surgery is also done when a pterygium causes a loss of vision or a condition called astigmatism, which can result in blurry vision. Surgical procedures are also recommended if the pterygium need to be removed for cosmetic reasons.

Refractive Surgery

REFRACTIVE EYE SURGERY refers to all techniques for correcting refractive errors through modifications on the cornea or lens. These errors are primarily myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and also include presbyopia. All refractive errors can be corrected using various types of procedure: - the primary classification is between corneal and intraocular surgery. The defects mentioned can normally be corrected wearing glasses and contact lenses. Surgery is generally advised or can be a solution when those aids are uncomfortable to use, as in cases of intolerance to lenses, work activities where use of contact lenses is inconvenient and the wish to become free from such aids during daily life. The vision correction is arrived through multiple methods like measuring the sight defect, corneal topography (the curvature of the eye surface), pachymetry (corneal thickness measurement) and pupil diameter.

Uveitis

Uveitis is the inflammation of uvea, the middle vascular tunic of the eye, rich in blood vessels and deputy to the nutrition of most of the ocular structures. An inflammatory process in the uvea can determine some damages on the cornea, the retina, the sclera and other ocular tissues.

Depending on the inflamed area of the uvea, uveitis is distinguished as :

  • – anterior, the most common
  • – posterior
  • – intermediate

The cause of uveitis may be multiple: consequence of an eye infection, consequently of a systemic disease (like arthritis). Often the causes of inflammation are not clear, in this case it is called idiopathic uveitis.

Visual System

Human Eye Anatomy

The eye is a sensory organ, that:

  • receives light rays reflected from objects around us
  • focuses an image of those objects within the eye
  • creates sensory information from image light patterns
  • transmits the sensory information to the brain,

so, we can "see" the world of objects around us.

The structures that contribute to the eye's ability to focus images include the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina.

  • Light rays first pass through the cornea, which acts as a refracting and protective membrane.
  • The crystalline lens acts as the focusing agent, changing shape so that images are focused on sensors in the retina.
  • Optic nerves within the retina collect sensory information about the image and transmit it to the brain for interpretation as sight.

Visual information is by far the richest and most important sensory information we receive about our world. With our eyes, we take in at a glance colour, form, texture, movement, direction, size, and location. We can distinguish tens of thousands of individual faces and make out a small object from a great distance. All of the richness of the visual world comes to us through the eye. Its marvellously complex neural circuitry and finely regulated biochemistry maintain a flow of information over extraordinarily wide ranges of illumination.

Layers of the Eye

There are three Layers of the Eye

Fibrous, vascular and nervous layers

Fibrous Layers : Cornea, Conjunctiva, Sclera
Vascular Layers: Iris, Ciliary Body, Choroid
Nervous Layers : Retina

Fibrous Layer

The eye is approximately spherical in shape, with a diameter of about 24 mm, or 1 inch. It is composed of three concentric layers (also called coats) with different structures and functions.

The tough outermost layer of the eye is known as the fibrous layer and is composed of three fused but physically quite different structures:

  • Sclera – "white of the eye"
  • Cornea – "window of the eye"
  • Conjunctiva- The conjunctiva is a thin, mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and sclera, but not the cornea.

The sclera is rigid to give the eye its shape, and opaque to exclude light. The cornea is transparent, smooth, and admits light into the eye. Also, the cornea has a curved surface that refracts light to help the lens focus images on the retina.

Sclera

The sclera is the fibrous layer around the eye, commonly known as the "white of the eye." It extends completely around the globe, except at the extreme anterior region, where it meets the cornea. The sclera is completely opaque, preventing light from entering the eye except through the cornea. The stiffness of the sclera helps to protect and maintain the spherical shape of the globe. If the eye's shape is altered, it cannot properly focus patterns of light on the retina and vision becomes impaired.

Conjunctiva

The conjunctiva is a thin, mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and sclera, but not the cornea. Clinically, the conjunctival membrane is divided into three parts:

  • the Palpebral Conjunctiva which covers the under-surface of the lids
  • the Fornecial Conjunctiva which forms a loose fold in the area between the eyelid and eyeball
  • the Bulbar Conjunctiva, which coats the anterior portion of the sclera.

The conjunctiva offers some protection to the eye, but its primary function is to lubricate the outer layer of the eye.

Cornea

The cornea is a transparent structure that acts as a window for the eye. The cornea lets light enter the eye and refracts light into the lens, so images can be focused on the retina.

The cornea (normally around 520 µm thick) is composed of five distinct layers:

  • Corneal Epithelium (outermost layer, 40-50 µm thick)
  • Bowman's membrane (6-9 µm thick)
  • Stroma (the bulk of the corneal thickness; made of collagen fibers)
  • Descemet’s membrane
  • Corneal endothelium

As a transparent structure, the cornea is avascular (contains no blood vessels). Its nutritional and metabolic needs are met by:

  • blood vessels supplying the (the junction of the sclera and cornea)
  • fluids that make up the precorneal tear film
  • components of the tear film aqueous
  • oxygen from the external environment

Corneal Epithelium

The outermost layer of the cornea, the corneal epithelium, consists of three types of cells:

  • a single layer of basal cells that are tightly attached to the basement membrane;
  • two or three layers of wing cells (named for their thin, wing-like extensions); and
  • two layers of elongated surface cells joined by bridges forming "tight junctions" that regulate the passage of substances across the epithelial surface. Tiny projections on these surface cells, known as , help distribute mucous secretions over the surface of the cornea. On the surface of the microvilli are long chain molecules called that help hold mucin to the corneal surface.

Innervation of the corneal surface by nerve endings from the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. The cornea contains many sensory nerve endings that mediate the pain response when the cornea is exposed to various stimuli, such as very bright light, extremes of pH, osmolarity or temperature, uncomfortable drugs or compounds, and touch. Reflex tearing occurs as a response to this stimulation. In addition, swelling of the corneal epithelium can produce the appearance of haloes around lights. The large number of nerves and the location of their endings account for the severe pain that occurs in dry eye conditions.

Precorneal Tear Film

To remain healthy, the cells of the corneal epithelium must be kept moist. This need is met by the elaboration of a thin layer of lubricating substances known as the precorneal tear film (PCTF). The PCTF or tear film, performs a number of important functions:

  • It maintains the health of the ocular surface by providing the moist environment essential for the corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells
  • It preserves clear vision by filling in irregularities in the corneal surface, assuring a smooth surface for light refraction
  • It is the primary source of nutrition, waste removal and antibacterial action. It supplies oxygen and nutrients to the avascular cornea and provides a pathway for the removal of metabolic products of corneal and conjunctival cells
  • It keeps cell membranes moist, preventing breakdown of epithelial cells by lubricating the eyelids during blinking
  • It is the first line of defence against microbial infection, containing antibacterial substances and antibodies that protect the corneal surface
  • It ensures comfort

Tear Film Structure

Traditionally, the tear film has been described as having three distinct layers:

  • outermost lipid (oily) layer
  • aqueous (watery) layer that makes up 90% of the tear film volume
  • mucin layer that coats the corneal surface.

However, it is now recognized that rather than being three distinct layers, the tear film has a surface lipid component and then phases of aqueous with differing concentrations of mucins suspended throughout. In addition, mucins in the tear film play a much more active role in maintaining tear film stability than was once thought.

Vascular Layer

The middle coat of the eye is the vascular layer, also called the Uvea or Uveal Tract. The uveal tract makes up the vascular pigmented coat and has three critical structures:

Structures of the Uveal tract

  • Iris
  • Choroid
  • Ciliary body (includes zonular fibers, ciliary muscles, and ciliary processes)

The ciliary body is closely associated with the:

  • Lens
  • Trabecular meshwork
  • Canal of Schlemm

Iris

Towards the front of the eye, the muscles of the iris (coloured portion of the eye) control the amount of light entering the eye. Pigments in the iris give it colour. The iris represents the anterior portion of the uveal tract. The iris is made up of smooth muscle fibers that adjust pupil size. The pupil (black aperture of the eye) is not a structure at all; rather, it is an opening created by the circular iris. Its blackness is due to the lack of reflection of light from within the eye. The pupil allows light into the eye.

Control of the Iris

The iris is composed of a pigmented epithelium, the anterior muscle, and the dilator muscle. The sphincter and dilator are both smooth muscles.

The sphincter muscle contracts in response to parasympathetic stimulation, while the dilator contracts in response to sympathetic stimulation. Changes in the amount of light falling on the retina stimulate or inhibit each pathway:

In bright light, the sphincter muscle contracts while the dilator muscle relaxes, closing down the pupil and making the aperture smaller.

In dim light, the sphincter muscle relaxes while the dilator muscle contracts, opening up the pupil and making the aperture larger.

This opening and closing action controls the amount of light passing through the iris and falling on the retina to optimize illumination of the photoreceptors. Dilation can also be caused by excess sympathetic stimulation of the dilator muscle. Numerous stimulants, including nicotine, caffeine, and amphetamines have this effect.

Choroid

The posterior portion of the uveal tract is represented by the Bruch’s Membrane, a vascular membrane that separates the fibrous layer from the retina. The choroid receives its blood supply from the central retinal artery that emerges from the back of the eye. The choroid provides all eye layers with 90% of their blood supply. The blood vessels, embedded in a meshwork of connective tissue, supply the fibrous layer and much of the retina with nutrients.

Blood vessels in the choroid This blood supply meets the oxygen and metabolic needs of the eye; it provides the eye with the nourishment it needs to perform basic cellular functions and removes waste products from the eye. The circulation of blood within the choroid is closely related to the pressure of fluids within the eye.

Ciliary Body

Towards the front of the eye, the choroid merges into the ciliary body. The Ciliary body is a blood-rich tissue, whose structures work together to produce the aqueous humor. The ciliary body is made up of:

  • Ciliary processes
  • Ciliary muscles
  • Zonular fibres

An important part of the ciliary body is the ciliary muscle, whose contractions control the shape of the lens during the process of focusing. The lens is suspended from the ciliary muscle by Zonular Fibres. Ciliary muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Parasympathetic stimulation causes the muscles to contract, while sympathetic stimulation causes muscle relaxation. Changes in ciliary muscle tension affect both vision (by focusing light through the lens) and the outflow of aqueous humor in the eye.

Nervous Layer

The nervous layer (retina) is a complex tissue that makes up the inside two-thirds of the back of the eye. The retina (the innermost layer of the eye) performs the function that gives the eye its purpose: it absorbs light and sends sensory information to the brain for processing. This information travels by way of long cell extensions, called nerve fibers; the bundle of nerve fibers leaving the eye is called the optic nerve. Within the optic nerve are blood vessels which help nourish the retina.

Retina

Layers of the retina

The retina is a multi-layered structure which lines the rear-most two-thirds of the inner globe surface. Anteriorly, it meets the ciliary body at the ora serrata. The retina's purpose is to absorb light and send sensory information to the brain for processing. The retina can be divided into several layers:

  • pigmented layer
  • neural layer
  • nerve fibre layer

The pigmented layer contains epithelial cells that absorb light and store Vitamin A. The neural layer is made up of photoreceptor cells that generate sensory information about the light patterns striking them, and nerve cells which send that information to the brain. Microscopic view of cones and rods Photoreceptors are neurons that convert light into electrical impulses. The two types of photoreceptors are called rods and cones.

Rods are more sensitive to light than cones. They process dim-light and peripheral vision.

Cones detect bright light and colour vision. Cones are more densely located in the centre of the eye's visual axis, while rods lay more peripherally.

The Macula (which means yellow spot) is an oval area in the centre of the retina on the back of the eye. In the centre of the macula lutea is a depression called the Fovea. The foveola forms the centre of the fovea and macula. The foveola is the thinnest part of the retina and all of its photoreceptors are cones, which are densely packed together. It is the only area of the retina with enough cones to provide sharp, accurate colour vision. The macula lutea, fovea, and foveola are directly in the line of sight. When a person looks directly at an object, its image is focused on the foveola; which produces a clear, detailed visual image. The nerve fibre layer of the retina consists of nerve fibers from cells that originate in the neural layer, as well as the vessels that supply this superficial layer: the central retinal artery and vein.

Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer

The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is formed by retinal ganglion cell axons and represents the innermost layer of the fundus. The nerve fibre layer collects the visual impulses that begin with the rods and cones. These impulses travel through the ganglion cells as they pass from the rods and cones to the nerve fibre layer. In the retina the axons are spread out as a thin layer and appear as opaque striations (axon bundles). These bundles have an almost straight horizontal course and form an arch around the macula. The thickness of the RNFL increases toward the optic disc. At the optic disc the axons bend and pass through the scleral canal and form the neuro-retinal rim of the optic nerve head. Optic disc cupping represents the area that does not contain nerve fibers. Because the RNFL thickness decreases in glaucoma, objective methods for measuring these changes are being investigated which may facilitate early diagnosis of glaucoma.

Optic Disc & Optic Nerve

The optic disc is a round area in the back of the eye where retinal nerve fibers collect to form the optic nerve. The optic disc is sometimes called the optic nerve head because it is the head of the optic nerve as it enters the eye from the brain. It is located slightly to the nasal side of the globe. The optic disc is known as the blind spot because it contains no photoreceptors. Thus, any light focused on the optic disc cannot be converted into sensory impulses nor sent to the brain for interpretation.

The optic disc:

  • Is the collection point of the nerve fibre layer as it exits the eye
  • Is where the nerve fibre layer becomes the optic nerve
  • Is where the central retinal artery enters the retina
  • Is where the central retinal vein exits the retina
  • Has a normal slight depression called the physiologic cup
  • Is round or slightly ovoid
  • Is about 1.5 millimetres in diameter
  • Is called the blind spot

Myopia

Eyeball Anatomy

If the eyeball is elongated from front to rear, the lens does not need to be very curved to allow focusing of near objects, because the light rays will be able to travel further before they must converge on the retina. However, in an elongated eye, even a fully flattened lens will cause light rays from distant objects to converge too soon, so that they will diverge again before they are received (focused on the retina). This causes blurred vision for distant objects, a condition known as "near-sightedness" or Myopia. Myopia may also occur if the lens in incapable of flattening properly, or if the cornea is abnormally convex.

Hyperopia & Presbyopia

The opposite problem occurs when the eyeball is too shallow, the lens is incapable of thickening appropriately, or the cornea is less curved than normal. In patients with these conditions, light rays from near objects do not converge in the eye, making vision of close objects blurred, while distant objects are seen clearly. This is "farsightedness" or Hyperopia (also called hypermetropia). With advancing age, the lens loses its elasticity, making it more difficult for the lens to change shape and focus near images. This type of farsightedness is known as presbyopia. The term "presbys" means "old man."

Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a structural defect of the cornea or crystalline lens that prevents light rays from converging at the same point on the retina, thus creating indistinct images. For example, light rays from one part of the image may converge behind or in front of the retina, while light rays from another part of the image may converge on the retina. As a result, the image as a whole is distorted.

Lacrimal System

Anatomy

Collectively, the anatomic structures responsible for the production, distribution, and drainage of tears are known as the lacrimal system. Functionally, the lacrimal system is divided into three parts:

  • the secretory system, which produces the components of the tear film
  • the distributional system, which spreads the tear film over the corneal and conjunctival surfaces
  • the excretory system, which provides for drainage of the tear film from the eye

To maintain ocular health, an appropriate balance among these three subsystems must be maintained. For example, if tear production exceeds the drainage capacity of the excretory system, watery eyes will result. Similarly, if the quantity or quality of secreted tears is insufficient to meet the needs of the distributional system, drying of the corneal surface may occur.

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INNOVATION

WHY PRESERVATIVES

Preservatives have been and are, an integrated part of any ophthalmic formulation.

What is the Novelia® System

This search led to the advent of Novelia® Multi Dose Preservative Free vials.

Significance of Novelia Technology

The PureFlow® Technology consists in using the air permeation property of the silicone to allow the air flow and avoid any bacteria penetration

Why prefer the Novelia® System

100% controlled and safe thanks to its patented PureFlow® technology. Functions with suspensions, emulsions and solutions up to high viscosities

Patients Experiences and Feedbacks

Patients prefer Novelia® 4 user studies have been conducted between 2009 and 2018 with a total of 230 people interviewed (120 in Europe / 110 in the US) including senior users with chronic eye disease.

Ocular Nutrients

Ocular Nutrients

Eye is a complex organ providing life to living, experiencing and expressing emotions with colour vision, depth perception, motion detection, vision in both near-dark and bright environments, stereovision and detailed visual acuity – accomplishing all these experiences nearly instantaneously. These experiences are called as Eyeness.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) & AREDS 2

ARMD is the cause of vision loss mainly associated with aging, but some forms of macular degeneration affect younger people as well.

Ocular Nutrients for Cornea – Keratoconus

Cornea is the transparent part of the eye that covers the front portion of the eye. It covers the pupil (the opening at the centre of the eye), iris (the coloured part of the eye), and anterior chamber (the fluid-filled inside of the eye). The cornea's main function is to refract or bend, light.

Curcumin for Eyes – Laurica K

The active nutrient in turmeric is a brightly coloured orange/yellow carotenoid pigment known Curcuma Longa. Curcumin is further classified as a Xanthophyll. The eye super-nutrients, Zeaxanthin and Lutein, are also Xanthophylls. While Zeaxanthin and Lutein are concentrated in the light-sensitive retina, Curcumin acts to support eye health with its antioxidant properties.

Total Products Folio

Anti Bacterial

Maxim Drops

  • Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride 0.5%
  • Maxim drops is a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of Bacterial conjunctivitis and other ocular infections
  • Maxim drops is a self-preserved formulation that is made with high quality, pure, sterile grade moxifloxacin.
  • Maxim drops offers a faster killing of ocular pathogens with its superior potency this helps in a faster recovery for the patients with ocular infection.
  • Maxim drops is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml packs.
  • Maxim drops comes with a calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Maxim Gel

  • Moxifloxacin 0.5%
  • Broad spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of Bacterial conjunctivitis.
  • Maxim is available in both Drops & Gel forms, which is self preserved.
  • The uniqueness of Maxim is its “Gel” presentation, with the advantage of Carbomer, that helps in sustained anti-bacterial efficacy and longer retention, facilitating patient’s compliance.
  • Maxim is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml packs.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Anti Bacterial + Steroid Combo

Maxim D

  • Moxifloxacin 0.5%+Dexamethasone0.1%
  • Indicated for successful treatment of ocular infection and prevention of inflammation and bacterial infection following ocular surgery.
  • Maxim D has broad spectrum efficacy of time-tested antibiotic Moxifloxacin and proven anti-inflammatory benefits of dexamethasone.
  • Maxim D offers treatment compliance for patients.
  • Maxim D is a Preservative free eye drops, Safe and comfortable to use.
  • Maxim D is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml pack.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Maxim L

  • Moxifloxacin 0.5%+Loteprednol 0.5%
  • Indicated for effective treatment of bacterial infections.
  • Maxim L has broad spectrum efficacy of time-tested antibiotic Moxifloxacin and proven anti-inflammatory benefits of softer steroid Loteprednol, devoid of steroidal side effects.
  • Maxim L is a Preservative free eye drops, Safe and comfortable to use.
  • Maxim L is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml pack.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Anti Inflammatory & Steroid

Accunac

  • TM-Nepafenac 0.1%
  • Target specific NSAID for the management of ocular pain and inflammation.
  • Unique prodrug structure that offers higher ocular bio-availability with faster onset of action
  • Accunac is manufactured with suspension milling technology for lesser particle size, hence no precipitate or crust formation on the ocular surface and lid margins
  • Accunac comes with the added advantage of Carbomer as base that gives better comfort upon instillation.
  • Accunac is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml pack.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Erpetol

  • Loteprednol Etabonate 0.5%
  • Indicated in the treatment of ocular allergy ,Inflammation due to injury or surgery and Bacterial infections.
  • Erpetol is manufactured with suspension milling technology for lesser particle size, hence no precipitate or crust formation on the ocular surface and lid margins
  • Erpetol is presented as a well refined suspension, no precipitates.
  • Erpetol is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml pack.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Predina

  • Prednisolone Acetate 1%
  • Predina belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids.
  • Indicated for conditions due to inflammation or injury, works by relieving symptoms such as swelling, redness, and itching.
  • Predina comes with uniformly blended prednisolone, standardized using Microfine Suspension Technology, making it different and advanced
  • Predina offers better homogeneity with each drops, there by offering better bioavailability.
  • Predina has no precipitation, minimum shaking required.
  • Predina is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 10ml pack.
  • The brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Tear Substitutes

Eyemac

  • Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose 0.5%
  • Provides symptomatic relief from all signs and symptoms of ocular surface associated with dry eyes.
  • Eyemac is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 10ml pack
  • The only brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.
  • Contains SOC – safe and effective preservative.
  • Safe for long term use.

Eyemac GB

  • Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose 1%
  • In our daily life, digital engagement is very high resulting in reduction of blinking leading to frequent tear film break up that results in dry eye conditions.
  • To put back the tear film to its normalcy, Good Blink is required.
  • Eyemac GB comes with CMC at higher strength of 1% , brings back quality of life in patients with high digital device engagements.
  • Eyemac GB is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 10 ml pack.
  • The only brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.
  • Contains SOC – safe and effective preservative for long term use.

Eyemac Gel

  • Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose 1%
  • Eyemac Gel has CMC 1% presented in “Gel”.
  • Eyemac Gel comes with the advantage of Carbomer ,helps in better retention.
  • Thickest gel formula, with transient blurring, Patients can get back to their normal work faster with out any visual disturbance.
  • Provides extra-strength moisturising comfort.
  • Eyemac Gel is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops, available in 10 ml pack.
  • Contains SOC – safe and effective preservative for long term use.

Aquim

  • Sodium Hyaluronate 0.18% + Carbomer 0.05% + Glycerin
  • Introducing for the first time in India, the needed TILT® in tears management.
  • At concentration of NaHa 0.18%, Aquim behaves as a natural viscoelastic and supports better lubrication.
  • Aquim has carbomer that soothes dry and irritated eyes and helps in longer retention, there by reducing dosing frequency and improves patient compliance.
  • Glycerin in Aquim helps to protects the eyes from more irritation.
  • The only brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops, available in 10ml pack.
  • Contains SOC – safe and effective preservative for long term use.

Dry Eye Treatment

Aquim PF

  • Sodium Hyaluronate 0.1%
  • Aquim PF is suited for all diverse requisites of ocular dryness.
  • Aquim PF offers instant symptom relief from ocular dryness with reduced dosing frequency and overall comfort.
  • Aquim PF is Preservative- free eye drops, ensuring safety of your ocular surface on long term use.
  • Available in a 10 ml Novelia® vial.
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • Can be used for two months after opening of vial.

Aquim T

  • Sodium Hyaluronate 0.18% + Trehalose 3%
  • Comprehensive treatment to preserve the integrity of ocular surface even in any ocular adversity.
  • Aquim T effectively repairs the damaged corneal epithelial cells due to oxidative stress associated with dry eyes.
  • Aquim T has greater hygroscopic nature helps in absorbing and retaining moisture which helps the patients with ocular dryness.
  • NaHa in Aquim T behaves as natural viscoelastic and supports better lubrication.
  • NaHa in Aquim T behaves as natural viscoelastic and supports better lubrication.
  • The only brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops, available in 10ml pack.
  • Contains SOC – safe and effective preservative for long term use.

NanCy PF

  • Cyclosporine 0.05%
  • Nancy PF is an ideal choice to address the root cause of dry eye syndrome and to prevent the progression of the disease.
  • Nancy PF contains Cyclosporine with MNP technology with a unique multiphasic formulation, that offers enhanced efficacy.
  • Nancy PF offers better comfort upon instillation, with superior corneal binding and a faster onset of action.
  • 1st time Preservative free Cyclosporine available in a multi dose formulation, ensures safety of your ocular surface on long term use.
  • Available in a 5 ml Novelia® vial.
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • One vial will last more days, address cost of therapy for the patients as cyclosporine need to be used for long term.

Aquim Gel

  • Sodium Hyaluronate 0.18% + Carbomer 0.05%
  • Introducing for the first time in India, the needed TILT® in tears management with glutinous consistency of Sodium Hyaluronate 0.18% and Carbomer 0.05%
  • Aquim Gel is a natural viscoelastic agent with inherited hygroscopic nature that helps in absorbing and retaining moisture.
  • Aquim Gel offers sustained lubrication & moisturizing effect for patients with dry eye syndromes.
  • Aquim Gel consists of carbomer that soothes dry and irritated eyes and helps in longer retention & reduces dosing frequency and improves patient compliance.
  • Aquim Gel is available in 10gm easy to use lamitubes

Mydriatics

Eyeness

  • Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 5%
  • Frequently used for the purpose of cycloplegic refraction, for fundus examination and photocoagulation, and for preventing the formation of posterior iris synechiae in uveitis.
  • Eyeness is brought in with the world's best patented grade LDPE vial, available in 5ml pack.
  • The only brand with calibrated nozzle for measured & accurate drops.

Ocular Hygeine Products

Eyeness Wipes

  • Eyeness Wipes is suited as an effective support in the treatment of ocular surface infection & inflammation for maintaining eye lid hygiene, Pre & Post operative eye lid hygiene.
  • Sterile & Preservative-free wipes, Impregnated with medical grade saline.
  • Sterilized using γ radiation – 25 KGy (kilo Gray).
  • 3-layer packing – Ensures to keep the wipes wet.
  • Our specific packing helps – In controlling OTR.
  • (O2 transfer rate) and WVTR (Water vapour transmission rate)
  • Each wipe measures 15 x 16 – the largest, convenient for patients to wipe eye lids without contacting eye.
  • Available in individually packed boxes of 10 & 20 sachets.

Aquim Lidwipes

  • Aquim wipes is suited as an effective support in the treatment of ocular surface infection & inflammation for maintaining eye lid hygiene, Pre & Post operative eye lid hygiene.
  • Aquim Lid wipes is sterile & Preservative free wipes with neutral pH.
  • Aquim wipes is impregnated with Nacl & Glycerine, surfactants ,antibacterial ingredients & ingredients that facilitates moisturization of eye lids.
  • Sterilized using γ radiation – 25 KG y (kilo Gray).
  • 3-layer packing, ensures to keep the wipes wet (Controls Oxygen transfer rate & Water vapor transmission rate).
  • Each wipe measures 15 x 16 – the largest, convenient for patients to wipe eye lids without contacting eye.
  • Available in individually packed boxes of 10 & 20 sachets.

Anti Glaucoma

Awarene PF

  • Travaprost-0.004%
  • Indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
  • Awarene PF ® is Preservative- free eye drops, ensuring safety of your ocular surface on long term use.
  • Available in a 5 ml transparent Novelia® vial.
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • Can be used for two months after opening of vial, making it as safer & cost-effective treatment for Glaucoma patients.

Awarene T PF

  • Travoprost 0.004% & Timolol Maleate 0.5%
  • Awarene T PF provides your Glaucoma patients with increased IOP Control when they need it the most.
  • Facilitates patient's compliance.
  • Awarene T PF is Preservative- free eye drops, ensuring safety of your ocular surface on long term use.
  • Available in a 5 ml Novelia® vial.
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • Can be used for two months after opening of vial, making it as safer & cost-effective treatment for Glaucoma patients.

Alfabet PF

  • Brimonidine Tartrate 0.2% &Timolol Maleate 0.5%
  • Alfabet PF is a time-tested combination for adjunctive IOP lowering , Combined to deliver synergism for Glaucoma patients.
  • Facilitates patient's compliance.
  • Alfabet PF ® is Preservative- free eye drops , ensuring safety of your ocular surface on long term use
  • Available in a 10 ml Novelia® vial.
  • state of art patented PureFlow technology from Nemera, France
  • easy to use, convenient and ergonomic system with blue tip for better accuracy to deliver calibrated drops
  • can be used for 60 days after opening
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • Can be used for two months after opening of vial, making it cost-effective treatment

Dorbet PF

  • Dorzolamide Hydrochloride 2% & Timolol Maleate 0.5%
  • Dorbet PF provides your Glaucoma patients with additional IOP control by improving tolerability, and adherence to therapy.
  • Facilitates patient's compliance, with a time tested and widely prescribed combination, now available in a preservative free vial.
  • Dorbet PF is Preservative- free eye drops, ensuring safety of your ocular surface on long term use.
  • Available in a 10 ml Novelia® vial.
  • Blue tip to ensure apt drop size & accurate delivery.
  • Can be used for two months after opening of vial, making it as safer & cost-effective treatment for Glaucoma patients.

Ocular Nutrients

Vcolux

  • Antioxidant
  • Vcolux is an ideal and well defined supplement which is suitable for all ages.
  • Vcolux contains Vitamin C ,Vitamin E, Zinc, Copper, Lutein & Zeaxanthin for patients concerned about keeping their vision healthy.
  • Ingredients in Vcolux is proven therapy for the patients with bilateral intermediate AMD or advanced AMD( Age related macular degeneration) and oxidative stress.
  • Ingredients in Vcolux is vegetarian in origin (Check for Green marking in the strip)
  • Available as tablets, strips of 10’s.

Vcolux C

  • Introducing for the 1st time in India for nurturing corneal health and strengthening vision.
  • Vcolux C focus on improving corneal health with unique ingredients.
  • Vcolux C contains Copper as (Copper Gluconate), Vitamin C, Zinc, Manganese & Selenium each ingredients plays a vital role in certain corneal diseases like Keratoconus, corneal wounds, ulceration, superficial Keratitis and Chronic corneal opacities.
  • Vcolux is available as tablets, strips of 10’s.

Laurica K

  • Introducing 1st time in India, in building immunity for all age groups.
  • Laurica K is an effective nutraceutical softules for preventive and augmentative therapy of several ocular diseases.
  • Laurica K has Curcuma Longa ,MCT Oil, Piperine contains immune modulating agents that exhibits antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory & neuro protective properties.
  • Laurica K® has beneficial effects on several ocular disorders like Dry eye syndrome ARMD Allergic conjunctivitis Glaucoma Anterior uveitis Ischemic & diabetic retinopathy.
  • Presented as softules ,Pack of 10’s strip.

Why Preservatives

Preservatives are added, as mandated to keep the drug safe and sterile from microbial invasions, bio-degradation and any ambient contaminations.

Though preservatives help to keep the formulation sterile over the course of multiple uses, various clinical studies have proved that preservatives also induce ocular surface toxicity and other implications.

Preservatives have not been the desired guests, more so in chronic therapy, while using multiple drugs and in aged patients.

Preservatives also have precipitated the discomforts in pre-existing ocular surface diseases such as Conjunctival inflammation, Corneal surface impairment, Conjunctival changes, Ocular surface changes, Epithelial changes, Histological changes, Ocular discomfort, Tear film Instability, Conjunctival inflammation.

Hence preservatives have always been undesired guest in an ophthalmic formulation.

The most commonly used preservatives are
  • Benzalkonium Chloride (BAK) and its variants
  • Polyquaternium
  • Stabilised Oxychloro Complex (SOC)
  • Sofzia
  • Ionic Buffers

The single dose, preservative free, UNIMS, came up as an option, but was not cost effective and also patient friendly. Hence the search has always been for “ MULTI DOSE PRESERVATIVE FREE” options, at least in Chronic therapies like Dry Eye & Glaucoma Management.

What is the Novelia® System

This search led to the advent of Novelia® Multi Dose Preservative Free vials.

The Novelia® Multi Dose Preservative Free eyedropper has been designed to be the best PF presentation available.

Novelia® is a Multi Dose Preservative Free eye dropper system delivering consistent drops and the design includes

  • A one-way valve that dispenses the dose and prevents back-flow (non-return valve) to maintain sterility of the bulk
  • A silicone membrane which allows air to enter the container by diffusion (Pure Flow), while preventing contamination ingress.

The complete mechanism is in the nozzle as shown in the picture below, making the device very unique and user friendly.

The Novelia® system uses a non-return valve that removes the need to filter the liquid. This makes it possible to use a silicone membrane to filter the air.

The venting system filters the intake of air using a very fine membrane manufactured from silicone polymer.

The silicone membrane is a solid, non-porous material. It is homogenous and does not contain any holes therefore its characteristics can be precisely engineered. The membrane’s intermolecular distance is of the order of nanometres, allowing the passage of air through the membrane, but completely preventing the passage of any liquid or solid, including bacteria.

An alternative to filters based on silicone: Novelia®

A viable alternative to the use of sterile filters for multi-dose preservative free eye droppers is a nonreturn valve system used in conjunction with a silicone membrane to filter the returning air.

The one-way valve ensures that no contaminated liquid can be re-introduced to the container after the drop has been dispensed, completely removing the need to filter the liquid. The intake of air into the dispenser takes place via a separate venting system with a silicone membrane called the PureFlow® Technology.

Significance of Novelia Technology

The PureFlow® Technology consists in using the air permeation property of the silicone to allow the air flow and avoid any bacteria penetration

The function of the silicone membrane can be compared to an inflated balloon. The balloon is a continuous, waterproof material, yet gas slowly passes through the wall of the balloon until the pressures inside and outside reach equilibrium.

The separation of the dose delivery from the venting system means that the membrane is kept dry.

This minimizes the risk of bacterial growth on the surface of the membrane, and also means that the testing process is non-destructive. In fact, devices that use this technology can be tested individually in-line as a consistent part of the manufacturing process to ensure robust quality standards.

This provides an even greater assurance of safety for the patients.

The below picture demonstrates the flow of drops and the air compensation.

Why choose the Novelia® System?

  • 100% controlled and safe thanks to its patented PureFlow® technology
  • Functions with suspensions, emulsions and solutions up to high viscosities
  • User-friendly and intuitive, as easy to use as any standard eyedropper
  • One drop at a time in the patient’s eye, calibrated drops
  • Blue tip for a better precision when targeting the eye
  • Low squeeze force
  • Passes very difficult contamination challenge tests
  • Considered as the best Preservative Free Multi Dose eyedropper
  • A robust system with proven performance
  • Approved with Medical Devices and Prescription Products
  • Easy to use by patients
  • Simple and convenient

Patients Experiences and Feedbacks

Patients prefer Novelia®

4 user studies have been conducted between 2009 and 2018 with a total of 230 people interviewed (120 in Europe / 110 in the US) including senior users with chronic eye disease.

Novelia® was the preferred MDPF eye dropper. The preferred features mentioned by patients are:

  • Intuitive opening (screw cap) Easy to use,
  • Ergonomic Blue tip feature to better target the eye
  • Easy to deliver drops
  • Easy to hold / handle
  • Adapted to “on-the-go” lifestyle with a tight screw-cap, no leakage possible
  • 43% of patients think that Novelia® would enhance compliance over their current treatment.
  • 76% of patients interviewed preferred Novelia®

OCULAR NUTRIENTS

Eye is a complex organ providing life to living, experiencing and expressing emotions with colour vision, depth perception, motion detection, vision in both near-dark and bright environments, stereovision and detailed visual acuity – accomplishing all these experiences nearly instantaneously. These experiences are called as Eyeness.

Eyeness is a state best described as the most beautiful, natural and ideal state a pair of eyes can be in. It’s the healthiest condition in which the human optical faculty can possibly function. Our sole vision is to help achieve Eyeness of patients and societies at large with our innovative and exclusive nutritive portfolio.

There are multiple nutrients that are required for healthy eyes and good vision. Nutritional requirements can vary through the lifespan. Most adults eating a balanced diet can obtain all their necessary nutrition through the diet they eat. If the diet is not as complete as it should be, a specialised ocular nutrient can be a good option to provide with a nearly complete allotment of vitamins and minerals.

Deficiencies of specific vitamins can increase the risk of some eye conditions, such as Cataracts, Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Research suggests that specific nutrients and mineral supplements would help protect from the development or progress of these conditions.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) & AREDS 2

ARMD is the cause of vision loss mainly associated with aging, but some forms of macular degeneration affect younger people as well.

ARMD occurs when there’s deterioration of light-sensitive cells in the macula area of the retina. This is the part of the eye responsible for:

  • Recording what we see and sending the information to our brains
  • Seeing fine detail
  • Focusing

AREDS2 conducted trials with thousands of patients at age groups across and made the final recommendations as below

Vitamin C - 500 mg

Vitamin E - 400 IU

Lutein - 10 mg

Zeaxanthin - 2 mg

Zinc - 80 mg

Copper - 2 mg

1. Lutein and zeaxanthin

Lutein and Zeaxanthin are carotenoids. Carotenoids are pigments found in plants and in the retina. Supplementing these pigments helps increase their density in the retina. They also absorb high-energy blue and ultraviolet light that can damage the eyes.

2. Zinc

Also found naturally in your eyes, Zinc is a powerful antioxidant that protects against cell damage. Zinc is the primary mineral in the AREDS2 formulation. When taking zinc, copper absorption is lessened. It’s recommended that zinc be combined with copper supplements.

3. Vitamin C

Several studies show that vitamin C reduces the risk of getting some types of cataracts. Some of these studies also found that a combination of vitamins C and E supplements reduced risk for cataracts and slowed the progression of cataracts.

Ocular Nutrients for Cornea

Cornea is the transparent part of the eye that covers the front portion of the eye. It covers the pupil (the opening at the centre of the eye), iris (the coloured part of the eye), and anterior chamber (the fluid-filled inside of the eye). The cornea's main function is to refract or bend, light.

The cornea is composed of proteins and cells. It does not contain blood vessels, unlike most of the tissues in the human body. Blood vessels may cloud the cornea, which may prevent it from refracting light properly and may adversely affect vision.

Since there are no nutrient-supplying blood vessels in the cornea, tears and the aqueous humor (a watery fluid) in the anterior chamber provide the cornea with nutrients.

The cornea tends to repair itself quickly from minor abrasions. However, deeper abrasions may cause scars to form on the cornea, which causes the cornea to lose its transparency, leading to visual impairment in the cases of Corneal Ulcer, SPK (Superficial Punctate Keratitis), Corneal Opacities.

The other Corneal Disease is Keratoconus

Keratoconus occurs when the cornea — the clear, dome-shaped front surface of the eye — thins and gradually bulges outward into a cone shape.

A cone-shaped cornea causes blurred vision and may cause sensitivity to light and glare. Keratoconus usually affects both eyes, though it often affects one eye more than the other. It generally begins to affect people between the ages of 10 and 25. The condition may progress slowly for 10 years or longer.

In the early stages of keratoconus, might be able to correct vision problems with glasses or soft contact lenses. Later, may have to be fitted with rigid, gas permeable contact lenses or other types of lenses, such as scleral lenses. If the condition progresses to an advanced stage, it may need a cornea transplant.

A new treatment called corneal collagen cross-linking may help to slow or stop keratoconus from progressing, possibly preventing the need for a future cornea transplant. This treatment may be offered in addition to the vision correction options above.

The Keratoconus condition can be managed by Ocular Nutrients like Copper Gluconate, Vitamin C, Vit B1, Vit B2, Vit B6, Vit B12, Zinc, Manganese and Selenium.

Copper Gluconate

Copper gluconate (or rather, just copper) is by no means a newly discovered mineral. Copper, as it turns out, is extremely important to the body. Even though the body only needs copper in trace amounts, deficiencies can cause vision loss and other harmful side effects. Copper gluconate is highly soluble in water, helping it to get better absorbed in the system.

Copper is a much-needed mineral for the eye. Like any fully functional system, the eyes too need all the minerals and vitamins to work in harmony to offer Eyeness.

The main benefits of Copper gluconate is, it works to boost the connectivity within the tissues of the eye. This means Copper works to keep the pigmentation in the eye to stay vibrant for longer, keeping the eyes bright and beautiful.

Copper gluconate has also been suggested to help prevent vision conditions such as Keratoconus. Early research has even suggested that because of copper’s ability to improve connectivity between corneal tissues, it helps in better crosslinking between elastin and collagen fibres.

Copper gluconate can also be found in supplements like Vcolux C. This formula will provide the eyes with all the necessary vitamins and nutrients needed for healthy eyes, including the trace amounts of copper that the body needs.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is important for human health, the lack of which, would cause scurvy. A protective effect of vitamin C has been found in the repair of corneal injury.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is also known to be involved in the suppression of corneal neovascularization via its antioxidant effects and ability to enhance collagen synthesis. Vitamin C supplementation has a beneficial effect on the healing process of infected corneas and reduces the size of corneal opacity resulting from infectious keratitis.

Zinc

Zinc, a trace element that influences cell metabolism through a variety of mechanisms, appears to play an integral role in maintaining normal ocular function. This element is present in high concentrations in ocular tissue, particularly in retina and choroid. Zinc deficiency has been shown to result in a variety of gross, ultrastructural and electrophysiologic ocular manifestations.

Zinc deficiency also plays a role in patients with keratoconus.

Vitamin B1 and B12

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) and Vitamin 12 (Mecobalamin) can help nourish and repair the corneal nerve layer to some extent, thereby alleviating burning and photophobia.

Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6

Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina.

Curcumin for Eyes – Laurica K

What Is Curcumin?
The active nutrient in turmeric is a brightly coloured orange/yellow carotenoid pigment known Curcuma Longa. Curcumin is further classified as a Xanthophyll. The eye super-nutrients, Zeaxanthin and Lutein, are also Xanthophylls. While Zeaxanthin and Lutein are concentrated in the light-sensitive retina, Curcumin acts to support eye health with its antioxidant properties.

Uniqueness of Curcumin

Curcumin is a pleiotropic agent helping from Trichology to Traumatology and from Onychology to Oncology

Benefits of Curcumin

On extensive studies of Curcumin, it is well demonstrated that curcumin has anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal properties. Curcumin also delays gastric emptying after a meal, which has beneficial effects on blood sugar regulation. More recently, curcumin is showing much promise as a neural-protectant. Finally, it acts as an immune modulator, helping to regulate cell function.

How Do You Get These Benefits?

The Curcumin in turmeric root is not in a form readily digestible or available for our bodies to absorb. When turmeric is gently heated in oil, Curcumin becomes more available for absorption. Since Curcumin is a fat-soluble nutrient, the oil also enhances the bioavailability. Black Pepper dramatically increases the body’s ability to absorb Curcumin.

The pleiotropic benefits of Curcumin Longa and Piperine with MCT derived out of Virgin Coconut Oil is the best offering to consume and optimise the complete benefits and is found in Laurica K Softules.

Health benefits of Curcumin for eyes:

1. Curcumin for Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a chronic and progressive condition leading to irreversible vision loss due to optic nerve damage from sustained and untreated, increased intra ocular pressure. Sometimes Glaucoma progresses even when the eye pressure is low. The thought is the nerves are getting damaged at the exit from eye and we need neuro-protection to help prevent further progression. Curcumin has been shown to have neuroprotective properties by inhibiting oxidative damage as well as helping prevent death of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

2. Curcumin for Cornea

Curcumin helps in corneal epithelial wound healing, by accelerating corneal nerve regeneration.

3. Curcumin for Dry Eye

Dry eye disease is caused due to decreased tear production and rapid tear evaporation. This develops the inevitable pathogenesis of increased tear osmolality and ocular surface inflammation, leading to inflammatory Ocular Surface Disorder. Curcumin helps to modulate the immunity and thereby moderates the cascade. Thus Curcumin provides long lasting relief in becoming concomitant treatment for Dry Eye.

4. Curcumin for Uveitis

Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, occurring inside the eye. The uvea includes the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid. Uveitis can be in the front, back or both parts of the eye. Curcumin effectively moderates the inflammation by modulating the expression and activation of cellular regulatory proteins such as chemokines, interleukins, haematopoietic growth factors and transcription factors.

5. Curcumin in Cataract

Cataract is clouding or opacification of the lens inside the eye. “It is believed that oxidative damage to the eye lens contributes to the development of different kinds of cataracts. The primary mechanism for the anti-cataract effect of curcumin is through its antioxidant properties. Vitamin C also has a preventative role in cataract progression. Curcumin helps increase vitamin C levels as well.

6. Curcumin for Retina

Curcumin prevents the formation of reactive oxygen species and so it is an effective protective agent. Curcumin has shown also anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Curcumin has demonstrated efficacy in Age Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Proliferative Vitreo Retinopathy and Retinal Cancers through the inherited pleiotropic properties and associated actions.

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